*Quick Facts:*

Birthday: 4th January, 1643

Father’s name: Isaac Newton Sr.

Mother’s name: Hannah Ayscough

Born In: Woolsthorpe Manor, Lincolnshire, England

Died: 31st March, 1727 at Kesington

Nationality: English

*Introduction:*

Sir Isaac Newton is a renowned scientist in England. He was a mathematician, astronomer, economist, physicist, theologian, author and philosopher. His famous relativistic theory, the theory of gravity, Newton's kinetics, rocks, optics, binomial theory, Principia, etc. made him world-famous. His outstanding inventions have uncovered a new dimension in physics.

*Childhood Life:*

Issac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, in Ulstrup Manor, Lincolnshire, England. His father, Isaac Newton Sr., was a farmer by profession, and his mother's name was Hannah Eskoff. His father, Isaac Newton Sr., died just 3 months before Newton was born. His mother then married Reverend Barnabas Smith a second time. At this time Newton was only 3 years old. Newton had three stepbrothers and one stepsister.

*Student Life:*

Newton was always a talented student. He taught at The King's School in Grantham until he was 17 years old. Here he learned Greek and Latin. But as his stepfather died, his mother asked him to join him in farming. But Newton did not agree. Then his master of his school brought him back to school. Then with his bachelor studies, Newton took the top spot in the school. In 1661 he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1664 he received a scholarship. And get another four years of studying for an MA. It was during this time that he learned of Kepler's work from scientists such as Galileo, Thomas Street. In 1665 he had discovered the 'bipedal theorem'. Which was subsequently calculus.

*Personal Life:*

Newton was unmarried, though it is reported that he once married and had a relationship with mathematician Nicholas Fatio de Deulier but was never married.

*Working Life:*

At first, he worked on various mathematical issues. He later engaged in a dispute with Leibniz in order to improve his calculus theory. Both of them developed calculus in their own way but there was no similarity between the two methods. It is also said that Newton did not publish anything on his calculus theory until 1693, while Leibniz explained everything thoroughly in his theory. He was then eager to publish his calculus theory to get rid of criticism and controversion. As early as 1699 it was remarked from the Royal Society that the Leibniz theory was completely wrong and Newton's theory was correct.

He then generalized the Bionomical Theorem and discovered Newton's Identity, Method, Cubic Plane Curve, Theory of Finite Differences, Co-ordinate Geometry, and Solutions of Diophantine Equations.

He also approximated the partial Sums in the Harmonic series by logarithm. In 1676, he notices the slight deviation of the color spectrum coming out of the prism, even noting that the ray of light entering the prism is spherical, but the prism reflects him in different colors from different angles. By his observation he concluded that color is the property of light. He then proves that the spectrum of different colors created as a result of the prism can be changed back to white light by one lens and another prism, and he says that the light never changes. Through his experiments he created a reflective telescope known as the 'Newton Telescope'.

He then began working on ocean mechanics. In 1680, he demonstrated by the presence of a comet that the elliptical shape of the planet's orbit would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. Here he mentions three of his motions. Which is known as Newton's motion. He then used the first and last ratios for geometric analysis to present the calculus national method.

He categorized them into four categories based on the cubic curve of 78 species. Four years after his death, his classification was verified and recognized.

*Another Task:*

In 1689 he joined as a member of the Parliament of England, and In 1701 he again took office. He joined the Royal Society as president in 1703, and in 1705 Queen Anne invited him for a royal visit. Where he was honoured with the title Knighthood.

Some of his books were published,

- 1711: De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas.
- 1671-75: Of Natures Obvious Laws and Processes in Vegetation.
- 1684: De motu corporum in gyrum.
- 1687: Philosophiae Naturalies Principia Mathematica.
- 1701: Scala graduum Caloris
- 1704: Opticks
- 1701-1725: Reports as Master of the Mint.
- 1707: Arithmetica Universalis.
- 1728: Optical Lectures.
- 1728: The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended.
- 1733: Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. John.
- 1736: Method of Fluxions.
- 1754: An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.
- 1728: De mundi systemate.

*Death: *

He died in London on March 20, 1727, while sleeping. His body was buried in Westminster Abbey. After his death his hair was examined, where the presence of mercury was found.