Galileo Galilei

Quick Facts:

Birthday: 15th February 1564

Father's name: Vincenzo Galilei

Mother's name: Giulia di Cosimo Ammannati

Born In: Villa Basilica, Italy

Died On: 8th January, 1642

Nationality: Italian


Galileo Galilei is popularly known for his work as an astronomer, who came up with numerous theories about orbital movement of planet, starts and other celestial objects. For his outstanding work in space science and aero physics he is popularly known as father of the observational astronomy. In addition to that, his work in modern physics and scientific method has also boosted him to be titled as “Father of Modern Physics” and “Father of Scientific Method” respectively.

Some of the popular topic that Galileo studied about in his early age include gravity and free fall, speed and velocity, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and a lot other physical phenomenon like this. While studying such principles, he invented modern gadgets like thermoscope and special types of compasses that could be used for military and surveillance purposes. He spent most of his time with his telescope to observe the interstellar space and celestial objects.


Galileo was born in Pisa which was a small city of Florence in Italy, on the day of 15th February 1564. He was the first of all of his five siblings and children of Vincenzo Galilei. Vincenzo was a popular composer, lutenist, and also well known for his work as a music theorist. He married her wife Giulia, in the year 1562. With his father's impact, Galileo also emerged as an accomplished lutenist himself as he learned quickly from his father a skepticism for a well settled authority.

Three of Galileo's five siblings had to struggle through the early infancy. His youngest of all the other siblings whose name was Michelangelo, also followed the path shown by his father to become a noted lutenist and composer. Michelangelo also gave his contribution towards numerous financial burdens at the time of Galileo's youth. But he was unable to donate towards his fair share amount in their father's promised dowries to their brothers-in-law, who would later try to get legal solutions for all of the due paycheques. Michelangelo also occasionally used to borrow funds from his brother, Galileo to stand his musical endeavors and excursions. It is believed that maybe these kinds of financial burdens were what may have added to Galileo's early plans to work upon the inventions that serve as a source to produce additional income for such requirements.

At the young age of just eight years, Galileo's family migrated to reside in Florence, but he was left to be with Jacopo for two years. He completed his studies from 1575 to 1578 in the Vallombrosa Abbey, which was located to about 30 kms towards the southeast of Florence.


Although Galileo seriously thought of pursuing the professionalism involving priest activities at the time of his youth, as his father wanted him to be. He instead at the year of 1580, joined at the University of Pisa for studying and acquiring a medical degree. 

In the year 1581, when he was studying medicine, he observed a swinging chandelier, which is caused due to the dynamic behavior of the air currents that caused this motion as a result of shifting them to swing about in larger and smaller arcs. To Galileo, this appeared, by comparison with his heartbeat. What completely shocked him was the observation which showed that the chandelier took the identical time to swing back and forth, no matter whatever be the amplitude of the swing. When he came back home, he created his own experiment setup which consisted of two pendulums of equal length and then shifted one with a large sweep and the other with a small sweep and observed that they kept time together. 

The mystery was yet to unveil until the work of Christiaan Huygens, which was executed to about almost a hundred years later, led to the discovery of the tautochrone nature of a swinging pendulum. It was used to establish an accurate timepiece. Up to this point, Galileo had mostly been sliding away from mathematics, since during those times, the value of a physician was a lot more than a general mathematician and they used to earn more too. But destiny had some other plans for him as he accidentally attended a lecture on geometry, which totally transformed his viewpoint about the subject of mathematics as he talked his reluctant father into letting him study and research about the subject of mathematics and natural philosophy instead of studying medicine. He invented a thermoscope, and then a forerunner of the thermometer. In the year 1586, he also published a small book which talked about the design of a hydrostatic balance he had invented. This invention was also the first of all the amazing works that got him to the attention of the scholarly world. 

Galileo also researched and explored "disegno," which is defined as encompassing fine art, and, in the year 1588, he finally milestoned the dd and explored "disegno," which is defined as encompassing fine art, and, in the year 1588, he finally milestoned the designation of instructor in one of the "disegno" in Florence, where he used to teach about perspective and chiaroscuro. In his stories, he is also shown to be fascinated by the artistic tradition of the city and the art of the Renaissance artists, Galileo acquired compassion towards aesthetic mentality. While as a young teacher at the Accademia, he made a lifelong friendship with one of the Florentine painter whose name was Cigoli, who had beautifully produced Galileo's lunar observations in one of his paintings.


  • He is the inventor of Hydrostatic Balance.
  • He is the inventor of Forerunner of Modern Thermometer.
  • He worked towards the improvisation of the military compass.
  • He discovered the isochronocity of the pendulums.
  • He is the father of observational astronomy.
  • He discovered the four largest moon of Jupiter.
  • He was the one to state and write the basic principle of relativity.
  • He is also considered as father of the modern science.


This famous astronomer died on 8th January, 1642, at the age of 77. His death cause was heart palpitations and fever.

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