**Quick Facts:**

Birthday: 287 BC

Father’s name: Phidias

Mother’s name: unknown

Born in: Syracuse

Died on: 212 BC

Nationality: Greek

*Introduction:*

Without any doubt, Archimedes is the world’s greatest scientist ever. He was a mathematician and he discovered many new formulas which were very useful. He was also a physicist, astronomer and he changed and discovered a lot of things and along with this, he was also an engineer, inventor and weapons designer. He established strong formula’s in the field of mathematics, physics and also provide a proper explanation of the principals. He was the man of his time and far ahead of his time. His contribution to different subjects made him one of the most eminent scientists and mathematicians of the classical era.

**Childhood Life:**

Around 287 B. C, he was born in Syracuse on the island of Sicily in Greece. His father was Phidias who was an astronomer. Archimedes may also have been related to Hiero II, king of Syracuse. One of his friends, Heracleides had written a biography on him but unfortunately, due to some reasons he was unable to complete and this is why there is no such information available about his life.

**Student Life:**

According to sources, he started his studies in the school that was established by the Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Egypt. After completing his study, he returned to Syracuse to live in his city.

**Personal Life:**

He was also interested in many different sections such as poetry, arts, and music along with his interest in arithmetic and science. Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were his mentors. He is also famous for his development of military techniques to be used in wars. In some developing countries, the Archimedes screw is still used for irrigation purposes.

You don’t get any information about his personal life but he was killed by a Roman soldier. He was working on a mathematical diagram and that time, the soldier told him that the general wants to meet him but he refused and told him that he had to finish the work fast. Then the angry soldier killed Archimedes with his sword.

**Working Life:**

Invented principle He discovered many things but among them, one of these major discover was his principals. He discovered a method that helps to determine the volume of an object with an irregular shape.

Once king hireo II had supplied pure gold to get a crown made for himself but when he received this, then he suspected that in his crown, some silver had been used and this is why he called Archimedes to investigate. Then he observed that the overflow of water is equal to the body and then he decided to apply the same theory of proportion.

Archimedes had a huge contribution to the field of mathematics as well. Many years ago, he was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to the modern integral calculus.

Therefore, with the help of ‘Method of exhaustion,’ he finds out the approximated value of pi. To find the areas and volumes of curved lines, surfaces such as pyramids, cones, circles and spheres, this method can be helpful. This method helped the mathematicians to form an integral calculus that is one of the important parts of current mathematics.

Additionally, he also proved that the area of a circle was equal to pi multiplied by the square of the radius of the circle. He also takes the credit for working on the catapult and improving the accuracy and power. He discovered an odometer during the time of the first Punic war.

He also worked on the lever and provides a proper explanation about them and he also mentioned the principle which was involved in his work. Moreover, he also designed block and tackle pulley systems. With the help of this principle, sailors can bale to lift heavy objects. He discovered many things and some of his major works are finding the theory of hydrostatics, explanations of levers and infinitesimals and his principles.

The Archimedes screw still has the same amount of importance and is used to propel liquids as well as solids like grain and coal. It was basically a device with a revolving screw-shaped blade inside a cylinder.

**Achievements:**

- Archimedes explained the sciences of mechanics and hydrostatics in the third century.
- Then he also discovered the laws of levers and pulleys. With the help of this law, we are now able to move heavy objects by using small forces.
- Moreover,
he also discovered one of the basic concepts of physics such as the
center of gravity. Along with this, he also discovered and proved the
mathematical formulas for the volume and surface area of a sphere.
- He also calculated the Pi value. The upper limit for pi was 22/7.
- He also showed how exponents could be used in order to write bigger numbers than had ever been thought of before.
- After that, multiple numbers can be written as exponents and exponents need to be added together and later he proved that. Leonardo da Vinci was lucky enough to see some of the handwritten copies of the Archimedes before they are printed.
- In the physical world, he applied his advanced mathematics and he was one of the world’s first mathematical physicists.

He was one of the first people who applied lessons from physics such as the law of the lever in order to solve the problem in pure mathematics. Galileo gets inspiration from his achievements and referred him as superman and praised his works. There is no reliable evidence to prove this but his last word was ‘don’t disturb my circles’

**Death:**

During the conquest of Syracuse in 212 BC, he was killed by a Roman Soldier. According to his wish, he was buried in a tomb on which was carved a sphere within a cylinder. He always believed that his greatest achievement was finding the formula for the volume of a sphere. After many years, Cicero, the Roman Governor of Sicily went there to look for the tomb of Archimedes. Then he found that the tomb had become overgrown with weeds and bushes which he ordered to be cleared. Today, we have no idea where the tomb is because it has been lost probably. His works and achievements will always guide us.

**Conclusion:**

Archimedes was a great scientist but above everything, he lived up to the Greek ethos of carrying out blue-sky research. His worked related to mathematics will help to improve the condition. But, all of his mathematical discoveries are proved to be useful in practically and mathematically.